Interventions in Reading and Writing

Interventions in Reading and Writing

Arlington Public Schools (APS) has a variety of researched-based intervention programs and approaches available. It is our goal to provide reading intervention to any student who is need of additional explicit instruction and support in one or more areas of phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension and fluency. Students participate in intervention based on individual needs to master specific literacy skills to become successful readers.Intervention sessions may supplement the core reading curriculum offered in APS. Each of the intervention approaches utilize assessment to determine specific individual needs and allows teachers to provide explicit instruction, guided practice, and monitor student progress. APS is committed to multiple tiers of support for all students which begins with quality classroom instruction that involves whole group, small group and individualized instruction. It is supported with expertise of specialists and research-based approaches and programs.Several approaches and programs are described below. This is not, however, an exhaustive list.

Differentiated Instruction in the Classroom: APS classroom teachers at all levels are expected to differentiate content, process, and product to offer choice, rigor, and support to all students. At the elementary level, students are taught according to their developmental reading and writing levels.

Small Group or Individual Instruction: The first level of instruction is often additional support and time with a specialist including a reading, ESOL/HILT, or Special Education teacher. The specialist will examine the strengths and areas of needs for individual students and design lessons to meet those needs.

Reading and Writing Intervention Protocols

Elementary ELA Intervention Protocol Final Sept 10 18

Secondary ELA Intervention Protocol Final Sept 10 18

 

 

Elementary Reading and Writing Interventions

Brief descriptions of each of the elementary reading and writing interventions are below. Additionally, Elementary Fact Sheets are available which describe the intervention approach in more depth.Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)The Fountas & Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention System (LLI) is a small-group, supplementary literacy intervention designed to help teachers provide powerful, daily, small-group instruction for the lowest achieving students at their grade level. Through systematically designed lessons and original, engaging leveled books, LLI supports learning in both reading and writing, helps students expand their knowledge of language and words and how they work. The goal of LLI is to bring students to grade level achievement in reading.” This intervention addresses both reading and writing. This is available in grades K-8.Excerpt from URL http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/lli_Overview.aspxReading Recovery is an early intervention program designed to assist first grade students who are having difficulty learning to read and write. Reading Recovery teachers provide supplemental targeted instruction to these students.The goal of Reading Recovery is to accelerate the child’s reading progress so that in 12 to 20 weeks the child is reading within the average range of the classroom. Each daily, 30-minute lesson is an interactive, one-on-one session in addition to the student’s regular reading instruction and involves reading, writing, and letter and word study. Students exit the program once they demonstrate ability to be strategic readers. This is available for first and second grades. Based on the extensive research of Dr. Marie Clay of New Zealand, Reading Recovery emphasizes problem-solving strategies designed to enable students to monitor their own reading, and become independent readers whose reading and writing improve whenever they read and write. This self-extending system is a key objective of Reading Recovery instruction. Early intervention, individualization and highly skilled teachers are primary factors in why this program is successful.Book Buddies is a research-based, one-to-one community tutorial program for first and second grade students. Community volunteers are trained by a reading certified teacher and provided with lesson plans and materials. Tutors work with an individual student twice a week for 45 minutes. This is available for first and second grades. Lessons include four components:

  • Rereading familiar books at the student’s current reading level to develop fluency
  • Word Study: reinforcement of phonological awareness, phonics, and orthography through sorting, games and activities with text
  • Writing; and
  • Reading new books with a focus on Comprehension

The Book Buddies Coordinator writes and supervises the biweekly lessons that provide additional support to place children on the road to literacy. Empty nesters, retirees, stay-at-home parents or anyone with a love of reading please contact the coordinator at your nearby school (see list below). All volunteers must submit the Arlington Public Schools Volunteer Application.Watch: APS Snapshot of the Book Buddy Program: A Community Tutorial Orton-Gillingham Approach  “In the 1930’s neurologist Dr. Samuel T. Orton and educator, psychologist Anna Gillingham developed the Orton-Gillingham approach to reading instruction for students with dyslexia. This theory combines multi-sensory techniques along with the structure of the English language. Those items taught include: phonemes and morphemes, such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Common spelling rules are introduced as well. Multi-sensory education incorporates the three learning pathways, which are: auditory, kinesthetic, and visual.”  This is available in grades K-12.Excerpt from URL https://www.orton-gillingham.com/about-us/orton-gillingha. Phono-Graphix The Phono-Graphix methodology is a multi- sensory, researched based, explicit approach to teach segmenting, blending, manipulating phonemes and spelling. The content is based on the nature of the English code while focusing on three skills to access the code: segmenting, blending, and phoneme manipulation. There are 4 overarching ideas behind the English code. This is available to students in grades K-5.Earobics Earobics©2014 is a proven research-based reading intervention solution that is diagnostic and prescriptive for students in Grades Pre-K–3. Earobics©2014 provides updated targeted individualized instruction in Phonics, Phonemic Awareness, Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, Fluency, Writing, Listening, and Speaking. Through adaptive technology combined with a robust set of engaging classroom resources (big books, readers, magnetic letters, and audio cds) students are provided with a comprehensive early literacy program. Powerful management tools enable teachers and administrators to monitor and chart student progress for differentiation. This is available to students in grades K-2.Spell Read SpellRead is a researched based intervention for students in grades 2-5 who have not been successful in Phono-Graphix or Orton Gillingham.My Virtual Reading Coach My Virtual Reading Coach is a researched based adaptive computer intervention to improve reading skills. MVRC explicitly targets phonemic awareness, phonics, sight words, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. This is available to students in grades K-5.Read Naturally Read Naturally is a researched based intervention that helps students in grades 2 through 8 who are struggling with reading fluency. The program differentiates instruction and provides each student with an individualized learning experience, building fluency at the pace and level adapted specifically for that student. Read Naturally is a structured and highly motivating program that combines the following three research-validated strategies for fluency instruction:

  1. teacher modeling, in which students read along while listening to a recording of a high interest story;
  2. repeated reading practice, in which students practice reading the story until they can read it at a predetermined, appropriate goal rate; and
  3. progress monitoring, including consultation between teacher and student.’

Step Up to Writing Step Up to Writing is a researched based multisensory, explicit, and structured approach for teaching writing strategies in grades K-5 to help students become proficient in the areas of informative/explanatory, narrative and personal narrative, and argument writing. These strategies also foster development of critical thinking, reading comprehension, and listening and speaking skills and helps establish writing as a process rather than as an end product. Step Up provides explicit, research-based instructional support; the writing activities and strategies lead to increased writing proficiency across all grade levels and for all learners. These strategies can be incorporated seamlessly into an existing writing curriculum, or they can constitute a curriculum of their own.

Secondary Reading and Writing Interventions

Brief descriptions of each of the secondary reading and writing interventions are below. Additionally, Secondary Fact Sheets are available which describe the intervention approach in more depth.Secondary Read 180 Program Read 180 is a comprehensive reading intervention program used at the secondary level to help struggling readers. It uses differentiated instruction combined with individualized software to improve student reading, allowing students to learn at their own pace. Find out more about Reading 180 and other programs by clicking on “Programs” in the left column. This is available in grades 6-12.Orton-Gillingham Approach  “In the 1930’s neurologist Dr. Samuel T. Orton and educator, psychologist Anna Gillingham developed the Orton-Gillingham approach to reading instruction for students with dyslexia. This theory combines multi-sensory techniques along with the structure of the English language. Those items taught include: phonemes and morphemes, such as prefixes, suffixes, and roots. Common spelling rules are introduced as well. Multi-sensory education incorporates the three learning pathways, which are: auditory, kinesthetic, and visual.”  This is available in grades K-12.Excerpt from URL https://www.orton-gillingham.com/about-us/orton-gillingha.Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI)The Fountas & Pinnell Leveled Literacy Intervention System (LLI) is a small-group, supplementary literacy intervention designed to help teachers provide powerful, daily, small-group instruction for the lowest achieving students at their grade level. Through systematically designed lessons and original, engaging leveled books, LLI supports learning in both reading and writing, helps students expand their knowledge of language and words and how they work. The goal of LLI is to bring students to grade level achievement in reading.” This intervention addresses both reading and writing. This is available in grades K-8.Excerpt from URL http://www.heinemann.com/fountasandpinnell/lli_Overview.aspxStep Up to Writing Step Up to Writing is a researched based multisensory, explicit, and structured approach for teaching writing strategies in grades 6-8 to help students become proficient in the areas of informative/explanatory, narrative and personal narrative, and argument writing. These strategies also foster development of critical thinking, reading comprehension, and listening and speaking skills and helps establish writing as a process rather than as an end product. Step Up provides explicit, research-based instructional support; the writing activities and strategies lead to increased writing proficiency across all grade levels and for all learners. These strategies can be incorporated seamlessly into an existing writing curriculum, or they can constitute a curriculum of their own.